The Walk -
The walk is the best form of mental stimulation!
Pent up energy of mental or physical forms has been linked to tension and anxiety.
There is more stimulation (different sights, smells etc.) when you break up the day with two walks and this also burns more energy than a single big, less intense one.
The walk with you, your dogs leader (remembering leadership and dominance are different) is primal bonding time, where you demonstrate you have what it takes to confidently lead, ‘Out in the big wide world’.
We can compare the walk to, going off ‘On the hunt’.
Throwing a ball or Frisbee does not calm the mind of a dog, these activities hype the dog up and we are wanting a calmer, more stable energy. Most certainly do these activities but they should not really make up the bulk of your exercise regime with your dog.
I would suggest, for even a small dog, such as a Yorkshire Terrier (adult), he or she should be getting two, twenty minute walks per day.
Remember, most dogs are confined to increasingly small property sizes and the walk breaks up a long day of monotony for many, Selina McIntyre, Dog Behavioural Consultant and Dog Trainer, Dogs Best Friend.